FIRST AID: A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS
Certain simple procedures may be safely carried out in the treatment of minor accidents or illnesses by school personnel.
The nurse should be notified in cases of serious illnesses or injuries. The office will be informed as to the whereabouts of the nurses so that they may be reached when needed.
It is unwise to give treatment beyond emergency aid at the time of an injury. The parent should assume the responsibility for any additional medical care.
Classroom teachers should be constantly observant of their pupils. They should note any deviation from the child's normal condition, be aware of undue restlessness, listlessness, headache, flush face, upset stomach, bad cough or skin eruptions. Any of these symptoms may be a forerunner of some contagious disease. The teacher should inform the nurse of the first case of communicable disease known.
If a child becomes ill at school, the nurse, or in his/her absence a designee, will determine whether or not the pupil should be excused. Arrangements for his/her safe transportation home should be made with the parent or the parent's designee.
Do Nots for Teachers
• Do not give any medication, including aspirin, cough drops, lozenges, cough syrups, etc.
• Do not remove any dressings or bandages which were applied by a doctor or a parent.
• Do not open blisters. A Band-Aid may be applied for protection.
• Do not open boils.
• Do not remove splinters.
First Aid Procedures
Abrasions & Minor Cuts Wash the area well with soap and water and apply a sterile dressing or Band-Aid if it is needed.
Bites Wash the wound with soap under running water and apply a sterile dressing or Band-Aid if needed. Notify the parent and advise him/her to contact and consult with the family physician.
Bleeding Press hard with a compress directly over the wound until the bleeding stops. (See Universal Precautions).
Bruises An ice pack, cold wet towels, snow, or ice in a plastic bag applied immediately may help to prevent swelling and pain.
Burns Hold the burned area under cold running water or apply ice until pain subsides.
Choking See Heimlich Maneuver.
Convulsions See attached information regarding seizure controls.
Electric Shock Do not touch the person until the contact is broken. Turn off the electricity if possible. If the power cannot be cut off, try to break contact with a non-conductive object. You can pull the patient from contact using a rope, wooden pole or loop of dry cloth. If breathing has stopped, start rescue breathing. (See CPR)
Eyes: Injuries, Foreign For an injury, cover the eye and call for assistance. For chemical
Bodies & Chemicals exposure, gently flush the eye with plenty of water, cover it and call for assistance.
Fainting & Unconsciousness If the child feels faint, lie him/her down with the feet elevated. If he/she becomes unconscious, turn his/her head to the side and loosen the clothing. If breathing stops, start CPR (See CPR). After consciousness returns, keep the student lying quiet for at least fifteen minutes.
Fractures If there is a reason to suspect a fracture or break of a bone, the student should be left where he/she is. Arrangement should be made to secure medical aid.
Insect Bites Apply ice. Check to see if the patient is allergic to insect bites. If so, follow the instruction ordered by the parent or physician. Be aware of students in your building who may be allergic to insect bites.
Nosebleeds Keep the head up! Apply pressure for at least five minutes to both sides of the nose. If this is not effective, continue applying pressure for longer intervals. Do not let the student blow his/her nose.
Poisoning by Mouth Secure medical help
immediately. Call the
Puncture Wounds Wash the wound with running water and soap. Notify the parents and advise them or consult with the family physician if necessary.
Severe Abdominal Pain Have the child rest on the cot. Notify the parents and advise them or consult with the family physician. Never apply heat or give any medication.
Sprains and Strains Always treat sprains and strained muscles as if they were broken bones. Notify the parents and advise them to consult with the family physician.
Toothache Advise the student/parent to see a dentist.
First Aid Travel Bag
The School Nurses have an equipped first aid bag that teachers may borrow to take on field trips.
Allergic reactions can happen at any time and can range from very mild to life threatening. School staff members should be aware of students with known severe allergies and should be familiar with the individual plan of action for each of these students.
In case of a bee sting, the area around the site of the sting is all that is usually infected. Symptoms may include a raised, reddened area around the site which may spread to the surrounding tissue.
The treatment includes removal of the stinger, application of ice and observation for signs of a more severe reaction.
Severe allergic reactions are responses to a foreign protein from a variety of sources: food, medication, pollen or insect stings. These reactions (also known as anaphylactic reactions) can cause death if not properly handled. Thus, an allergic reaction is a medical emergency that requires immediate action. Symptoms include one or more of the following:
• Swelling, flushing and itching skin.
• Tightness of the throat and chest.
• Rash or hives: Diffuse or wheel-like pattern.
• Breathing difficulty, wheezing or both.
• Bluish color to the skin (cyanosis).
• Hard to find or weak pulse (circulatory collapse).
• Loss of consciousness.
If any student has the signs of a severe allergic reaction, immediately take action as follows:
• Apply ice.
• Give the prescribed medication (if ordered and available). If the medication is not available or if the student was not known to be allergic but is showing severe symptoms, continue this procedure without the medication.
• Stay with the student and send someone for emergency medical help (ambulance).
• Establish and maintain effective life saving measures as needed.
• Provide reassurance and remain calm.
• Give the emergency personnel the student health and allergy information along with the personal/family information and permission to treat emergency form. Also, give the medication, container, or name of the medication used and the time it was given.
• Notify the parent or guardian.
• Document the reaction. Include the symptoms you saw, what you did, when you did it and other information that may be helpful as a reference.
If it is not possible to reach to the back of the throat and extract the food with your fingers, the Heimlich Method should be used.
If the victim is standing or sitting, stand behind him/her, wrap your arms around his/her waist and allow his/her head, arms and upper torso to hang forward. Grasp your fist with your other hand and place the fist against the victims abdomen, slightly above the navel and below the rib cage.
Press your fist forcefully into the victim's abdomen with a quick upward thrust, repeat if necessary.
If the victim is lying on his/her back, kneel astride his/her hips, facing him/her. With one of your hands over the other, place the heel of your bottom hand on the abdomen just above the navel and below the rib cage. Press in on the victim's abdomen with a quick upward thrust. Repeat if necessary.
This method of pressure forces the diaphragm upward, compressing the trapped air in the lungs, expelling the blocking food particle from the breathing passage. A person alone may apply the method using his/her own fist or the back of a chair. The method must be done correctly or ribs nay be fractured or internal damage may be done.